Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN) is a standardized set of methods, including a . The STUN protocol and method were updated in RFC , retaining many of the original specifications as a subset of methods, but removing others. 21 Oct STUN was first defined in RFC (standards) back in , and then revised two times once in RFC (standards) in and again in. Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN). This RFC was published in Abstract. Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN) is a protocol that serves.

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Classic STUN also had a security vulnerability — attackers could provide the client with incorrect mapped addresses under certain topologies and rfc 5389, and this was fundamentally not solvable through any cryptographic means.

The rtc from a long-term credential. In the cases of restricted cone or port restricted cone NATs, the rfc 5389 must send out a packet to the endpoint before the NAT will allow packets from the endpoint through to the client.


Response classes are split into error and success responses to aid in quickly processing the STUN message. The password component of a short-term credential. The class indicates whether this is a request, a success response, an error response, or rcf indication. Authentication and Message-Integrity Mechanisms STUN servers do not implement any reliability mechanism for their responses. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.


A STUN client rfc 5389 also send indications. In this specification, the terms STUN server and server are synonymous.

In some cases, a usage will require extensions to STUN. A magic cookie rfc 5389 for demultiplexing STUN with application protocols was rcf by stealing 32 bits from the bit transaction ID defined in RFCallowing the change to be backwards rfc 5389. The on-the-wire protocol described here is changed only rfc 5389 from classic STUN.

It also provides a way for an endpoint to keep a NAT binding alive.

Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)

The rfc 5389 remains STUN, which is all anyone ever remembers anyway. Attributes are divided into rfc 5389 types: A temporary username and associated password that represent a shared secret between client and server. For other uses, see STUN disambiguation.

Some NAT behavior may restrict peer connectivity even when the public binding is known. Same meaning as reflexive address. This provides another way to distinguish STUN packets from packets of other protocols. These mechanisms rfx DNS discovery, rfc 5389 redirection technique to an alternate server, rfc 5389 fingerprint attribute for 539, and two authentication and message-integrity exchanges.

In the short-term credential mechanism, the client and the server exchange a username and password through some out-of-band method prior to the STUN exchange. Retrieved from ” https: Short- term credentials are obtained rfc 5389 some kind of rf mechanism rfc 5389 the client and server, preceding the STUN exchange. Though this problem remains with this specification, those attacks are now mitigated through the use of more complete solutions that make use of STUN.

See Section 19 for a more complete listing. Table of Contents 1.


The client, typically operating inside a private networksends a binding request to rfc 5389 STUN server on the public Internet. This specification defines a single method, Binding.

A transport address learned by a client that identifies that client rfc 5389 seen by another host on an IP network, typically a STUN server. Network address translation is implemented via a number of different address and port mapping schemes, none of which is standardized. C1 and C0 represent a 589 encoding of the class. This document defines a single method called Binding.

These solutions are known as Rc usages. STUN agents can rfc 5389 ignore comprehension-optional attributes they don’t understand, but rcf successfully process a message if it contains comprehension-required attributes that are not understood.

The address and port learned through classic STUN are sometimes usable for communications with a peer, and sometimes not. STUN rfc 5389 a tool for communications protocols to detect and traverse network address translators that are located in the path between two endpoints 3589 communication. It is implemented as a rfc 5389 client-server protocol, requiring only simple query and response components with a third-party server located on the common, easily accessible network, rfc 5389 the Internet.

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